The output power of a solar module not only depends on the ability of cells in converting incident sunlight into the electric current but also depends on the loss and gain mechanisms in cell and module levels which are greatly considered in the cell-to-module (CTM) power ratio.
1-20% reducing GHG emissions
2-20% increasing the share of renewable consumption
3-20% improving energy efficiency.
Improving the efficiency and output power of solar modules have direct and indirect impacts on one out of three targets and the other two ones in order. They have a direct impact on the second target and an indirect impact on the first and third ones.
Generally speaking, the output power of a solar module is the sum of the powers of all the individual cells in the module multiplied by the CTM power ratio.
The increasing CTM ratio leads to improve the efficiency of a solar module and reduce the price per watt of it.
Some of the loss mechanisms that have impacts on the CTM ratio include reflection from air-glass and glass-encapsulation interfaces, shading from cell interconnections.
Some of the gain mechanisms that have impacts on the CTM ratio include reflection from encapsulation-backsheet and cell-encapsulation interfaces, and reflection from interconnections.
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